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High-Seafood Diets May Increase Risk of Exposure to ‘Forever Chemicals’

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High Seafood Diets and the Risk of Exposure to ‘Forever Chemicals’

Seafood is a popular choice for many people due to its delicious taste, nutritional benefits, and the variety of dishes it can be used in. However, recent studies have raised concerns about the potential risk of exposure to ‘forever chemicals’ through high seafood diets. In this article, we will explore what these chemicals are, how they can accumulate in seafood, and the potential health risks associated with their consumption.

Understanding ‘Forever Chemicals’

‘Forever chemicals’, also known as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), are a group of man-made chemicals that have been widely used in various industrial and consumer products for decades. These chemicals are known for their resistance to heat, water, and oil, making them useful in products such as non-stick cookware, waterproof clothing, food packaging, and firefighting foam.

One of the concerning aspects of PFAS is their persistence in the environment. They do not break down easily and can remain in the environment for a long time, hence the name ‘forever chemicals’. This persistence has led to their widespread presence in water, soil, and even in the bodies of humans and animals.

Accumulation of PFAS in Seafood

PFAS can enter the aquatic environment through various pathways, including industrial discharges, wastewater treatment plants, and the use of firefighting foam. Once in the water, these chemicals can accumulate in the bodies of fish and other seafood through a process known as bioaccumulation.

As fish and other aquatic organisms consume food and water containing PFAS, these chemicals gradually accumulate in their tissues. The higher up the food chain a species is, the greater the potential for PFAS accumulation. This means that larger predatory fish, such as sharks, swordfish, and tuna, are more likely to have higher levels of PFAS compared to smaller fish.

Potential Health Risks

The potential health risks associated with PFAS exposure through high seafood diets are still being studied, but there are some concerns based on existing research. These chemicals have been linked to various adverse health effects, including:

  • Increased risk of certain types of cancer, such as kidney and testicular cancer
  • Disruption of hormone levels
  • Impaired immune function
  • Developmental and reproductive issues
  • Liver damage

It is important to note that the health risks may vary depending on the specific PFAS compound and the level of exposure. Additionally, individual susceptibility to these chemicals can also play a role in determining the potential health effects.

Minimizing Exposure to PFAS

While the risks associated with PFAS exposure through seafood consumption are still being researched, there are steps you can take to minimize your exposure:

  • Diversify your diet: Instead of relying heavily on seafood, incorporate a variety of other protein sources into your diet, such as poultry, legumes, and nuts.
  • Choose low-mercury fish: Some fish, such as salmon, sardines, and trout, are known to have lower levels of mercury and other contaminants. Opt for these fish when consuming seafood.
  • Consider the source: If possible, choose seafood that is sourced from clean and sustainable waters. This may reduce the likelihood of exposure to PFAS.
  • Properly prepare and cook seafood: Cooking methods such as grilling, baking, and broiling can help reduce the levels of PFAS in seafood. Avoid deep-frying or cooking with excessive oil.
  • Stay informed: Keep up-to-date with the latest research and recommendations regarding PFAS and seafood consumption. This will help you make informed choices about your diet.


While seafood can be a nutritious and delicious part of a balanced diet, it is important to be aware of the potential risks associated with high seafood diets and exposure to ‘forever chemicals’ like PFAS. By diversifying your diet, choosing low-mercury fish, considering the source of seafood, and properly preparing your meals, you can help minimize your exposure to these chemicals. Staying informed and following the latest research will also enable you to make informed decisions about your diet and overall health.

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